The Surgical Management of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee in the Skeletally Immature: A Survey of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) Membership
Joseph L. Yellin, BA, Itai Gans, MD, James L. Carey, MD, MPH, Kevin G. Shea, MD, and
Theodore J. Ganley, MD
J Pediatr Orthop  Volume 00, Number 00, ’’ 2015


Diagnosis of Knee Osteochondral Lesions With Ultrasound Imaging
Pekko Penttilä, M.D., Jukka Liukkonen, M.Sc., Antti Joukainen, M.D., Ph.D., Tuomas Virén, M.Sc., Ph.D., Jukka S. Jurvelin, Ph.D., Juha Töyräs, Ph.D.,
and Heikki Kröger, M.D., Ph.D.
Arthroscopy Techniques, Vol -, No – (Month), 2015: pp e1-e5


Candidate Loci are Revealed by an Initial Genome-wide Association Study of Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans
Joseph L. Yellin, BA, Ashley Trocle, BAS, Struan F.A. Grant, PhD, Hakon Hakonarson, MD, PhD, Kevin G. Shea, MD, and Theodore J. Ganley, MD
J Pediatr Orthop  Volume 00, Number 00, ’’ 2015


Novel Application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Demonstrates Characteristic Differences in Vasculature at Predilection Sites of Osteochondritis Dissecans
Ferenc Tóth, Mikko J. Nissi, Jutta M. Ellermann, Luning Wang, Kevin G. Shea, John Polousky and Cathy S. Carlson
Am J Sports Med published online August 18, 2015
DOI: 10.1177/0363546515596410


Development of a Large Animal Model of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee
Christian G. Pfeifer, MD; Stuart D. Kinsella, MD; Andrew H. Milby,MD;
Matthew B. Fisher,PhD; Nicole S. Belkin, MD; Robert L. Mauck, PhD;
and James L. Carey, MD, MPH
The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 3(2), 2325967115570019
DOI: 10.1177/2325967115570019


Is vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency related to the development of osteochondritis dissecans?
Juergen Bruns; Mathias Werner; Matthias Soyka
European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA) 2014
DOI 10.1007/s00167-014-3413-7


Intact Bone Vitality and Increased Accumulation of Nonmineralized Bone Matrix in Biopsy Specimens of Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans
Matthias Krause, MD, Daniel Lehmann, Michael Amling, MD, Tim Rolvien, Karl-Heinz Frosch,y MD, Klaus Pu, MD, Klaus Bohndorf, MD, and Norbert M. Meenen, MD
The American Journal of Sports Medicine
DOI: 10.1177/0363546515572579


A Comparative Analysis of International Knee Documentation Committee Scores for Common Pediatric and Adolescent Knee Injuries
Marcus A. Rothermich, MD, Jeffrey J. Nepple, MD, Valary T. Raup, BA, June C. O’Donnell, MPH, and Scott J. Luhmann, MD
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 2015


Intercondylar Notch Width as a Risk Factor for Medial Femoral Condyle Osteochondritis Dissecans in Skeletally Immature Patients
Roxanne M. Chow, MD, Maurice S. Guzman, MD, and Quang Dao, MD
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 2015


Intact Bone Vitality and Increased Accumulation of Nonmineralized Bone Matrix in Biopsy Specimens of Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans: A Histological Analysis
Matthias Krause, Daniel Lehmann, Michael Amling, Tim Rolvien, Karl-Heinz Frosch, Klaus Püschel, Klaus Bohndorf and Norbert M. Meenen
Am J Sports Med published online March 10, 2015
DOI: 10.1177/0363546515572579


Surgical induction, histological evaluation, and MRI identification of cartilage necrosis in the distal femur in goats to model early lesions of osteochondrosis
F. Toth, M.J. Nissi, L. Wang, J.M. Ellermann, C.S. Carlson
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 23 (2015) 300e307


Proximal tibial morphology and its correlation with osteochondritis dissecans of the knee
John F. Wechter, Robby Singh Sikka, Mujtaba Alwan, Bradley J. Nelson, Marc Tompkins
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
DOI 10.1007/s00167-014-3289-6
Published online: 25 September 2014


Implant Failure After Biodegradable Screw Fixation in Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee in Skeletally Immature Patients
Carlo Camathias, M.D., Ulas Gögüs, M.D., Michael T. Hirschmann, M.D., Erich Rutz, M.D., Reinald Brunner, M.D., David Haeni, M.D., and Patrick Vavken, M.D.
Arthroscopy Association of North America, 2014


Novel Radiographic Feature Classification of Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans: A Multicenter Reliability Study
Eric J. Wall, John D. Polousky, Kevin G. Shea, James L. Carey, Theodore J. Ganley, Nathan L. Grimm, John C. Jacobs, Jr, Eric W. Edmonds, Emily A. Eismann, Allen Anderson, Ben Heyworth, Roger Lyon and for the Research on OsteoChondritis Dissecans of the Knee (ROCK) Study Group
Am J Sports Med published online January 12, 2015
DOI: 10.1177/0363546514566600


Surgical Management of Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions of the Patella and Trochlea in the Pediatric and Adolescent Population
Dennis E. Kramer, MD, Yi-Meng Yen, MD, PhD, Michael K. Simoni, MD,
Patricia E. Miller, MS, Lyle J. Micheli, MD, Mininder S. Kocher, MD, MPH,
and Benton E. Heyworth, MD
Am J Sports Med published online January 2, 2015
DOI: 10.1177/0363546514562174


Prevalence of Bilateral JOCD of the Knee and Associated Risk Factors
Trenton Cooper, DO, Aaron Boyles, DO, Walter P. Samora, MD, and Kevin E. Klingele, MD
J Pediatr Orthop  Volume 00, Number 00, ’’ 2014,


Fluoroquinolone Use in a Child Associated with Development of
Osteochondritis Dissecans

John Jacobs,St. Luke’s Boise Medical Center; Kevin Shea, St. Luke’s Boise Medical Center, University of Utah Department of Orthopedics; Julia Oxford, Boise State University; James Carey, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine
BMJ Case Rep. ; 2014: . doi:10.1136/bcr-2014-204544.

  • 10 y.o. female
  • 18 month exposure to ciprofloxacin
  • 3 years later developed significant distal femoral OCD which needed drilling which resolved


Trochlear Groove Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee Patellofemoral Joint
Wall, Eric J. MD; Heyworth, Benton E. , MD; G. Shea, Kevin , MD; Edmonds, Eric W. , MD; Wright, Rick W. , MD; Anderson, Allen F. , MD; Eismann, Emily A. , MS; Myer, Gregory D. , PhD, FACSM, CSCS
J Pediatr Orthop  Volume 00, Number 00, ’’ 2014

  • 38% unstable lesions
  • 24% additional OCD lesions
  • 50% improved with nonoperative treatment
  • 66% were operatively treated


Autologous Osteochondral Transplantation for Treating Patellar Chondral Injuries: Evaluation, Treatment, and Outcomes of a Two-Year Follow-up Study
Diego Costa Astur, MD, Gustavo Goncxalves Arliani, MD, Mario Binz, MD, Nelson Astur, MD, Camila Cohen Kaleka, MD, Joicemar Tarouco Amaro, MD, Alberto Pochini, MD, and Moises Cohen, MD, PhD
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014;96:816-23


Arthroscopic Preparation and Internal Fixation of an Unstable Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesion of the Knee
Christopher L. Camp, M.D., Aaron J. Krych, M.D., and Michael J. Stuart, M.D.
Arthroscopy Techniques, Vol 2, No 4 (November), 2013: pp e461-e465

  • Reported on all arthroscopic techniques of OCD lesion treatment including bed debridement and fixation
  • No results reported


Functional and Radiographic Outcomes of Unstable Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee Treated With Lesion Fixation Using Bioabsorbable Pins
Nobuo Adachi, MD, Masataka Deie, MD, Atsuo Nakamae, MD, Atsushi Okuhara, MD, Goki Kamei, MD, and Mitsuo Ochi, MD
J Pediatr Orthop 2014;00:000–000


Trochlear Groove Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee Patellofemoral Joint
Wall EJ, Heyworth BE, Shea KG, Edmonds EW, Wright RW, Anderson AF, Eismann EA, Myer GD.
J Pediatr Orthop 2014;00:000–000


The Demographics and Epidemiology of OCD in Children and Adolescents
KesslerJI, Nikizah H, Shea KG, Jacobs JC Jr, Bebchuk JD, Weiss JM
Am J Sports Med. 2014 Feb; 42(2): 320-6


  • MFC lesions(64%) >LFC lesions(33%)
  • Male (18%)>>Female (4%) in 12-19 age group
  • Most common in 12-19 age group x3
  • Blacks have higher incidence than other ethnic groups


Multifocal Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee: A Case Series
Backes JR, Durbin TC, Bentley JC, Klingele KE
J Pedicati Orthop, 2013 Nov. 16

• Level 4 evidence: retrospective case series
• 28 patients – ages 6-17
• 74% required operative treatment
• 41% of unstable lesions healed after on operation
• Medial lesions healed at a much higher rate (89%) than lateral lesions (37%)
• Even stable lesions only healed with nonop management 26% of the time


Healing Predictors of Stabel Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans Knee Lesions After 6 and 12 Months of Nonoperative Treatment.
Krause M, Hapfelmeier A, Moller M, Amling M, Bohndorf K, Meenen NM
Am J Sports Med. 2013 Oct;41(10): 2384-91

• Nonoperatinve treatment of stable JOCD of the knee fails in up to 50% of cases
• Cohort Study
• 62 white patients
• 6 months nonoperative 51(67%) of 76 stable JOCD showed no progression toward healing or showed signs of instability
• Age, CLL size and normalized lesion width best predicted healing after 6 months and resulted in an area under the curve of 0.79 (P<.001) • After 12 months, 37 lesions (49%) had progressed toward healing, and the sole observation of CLL size had the highest predictive validity (0.766) • A 6 month period of nonop with or without casting may be appropriated if the healing potential is >48%.
• A 12 month period of nonop treatment may be successful if the CLL is <1.3 mm in length on MRI


Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation of the Knee in the Pediatric and Adolescent Population
Murphy RT, Pennock AT, Bugbee WC
Am J Sports Med. 2014 Mar, 42(3): 635-40

  • Case series
  • 39 patients (43 knees)
  • Fresh OATS
  • 26 male and 17 female
  • Age range 11.0-17.9 years
  • Followed up at a mean of 8.4 years
  • OCD (61%), AVN (16%) and traumatic chondral injury (14%)
  • 5 knees experience clinical failure at a median of 2.7 years
  • Graft survivorship was 90% at 10 years
  • 89% of patients reported “extremely satisfied” or “satisfied”
  • 80% salvage rate of clinical failures


Clinical Outcomes of Internal Fixation of Unstable Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions of the Knee
Webb JE, Lewallen LW, Christophersen C, Krych AJ, McIntosh AL
Orthopedics, 2013 Nov; 36(11): e1444-9

  • Retrospective review
  • Internal fixation of OCD lesions from 1999-2009
  • 19 patients (20 knees)
  • Clinical follow up 7 years
  • 11 kneed had lateral condyle lesions and 9 had medial lesions
  • Osseous integration was evident in 15 (75%) of 20 knees at final follow-up
  • 5 unhealed lesions wer lateral condylar sessions
  • Further operative intervention was required in 11 knees with 50% of patients undergoing removal of hardware and 15% requiring subsequent OAT
  • Authors recommend bioabsorbable fixation for symptomatic stabe lesions and metal compression screws with staged removal for unstable lesions


A One-step Tratment for Chondral and Osteochondral Knee Defects: Clinical Results of a Biomimetric Scaffold Implantation at 2 Years of Follow-up
Kon E, Filardo G, Perdisa F, DiMartino A, Busacca M, Balboni F, Sessa A, Marcacci MJ Mater Sci Mater Med, 2014 March 6 (ahead of Print)

• Outcome after implantation of a nanostructured biomimetic three-phasic callogen-hydroxyapatite construct
• 79 patients grate II-IV femoral condyle or trochlea lesions of OCD were consecutively treated.
• Mean age was 31.0 ± 11.3 years
• One step biomimetic approach effective in treating knees affected by damages of the articular surface, leading to a significant clinical improvement


Indications for Surgical Management of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee in the Pediatric Population:  A Systematic Review
Salci L, Ayeni O, Abouassaly M, Farrakhyar F, D’Souza JA, Bhandari M, Person D
J Knee Surg. 2014 Apr; 27(2): 147-56


NOT USEFUL – Article not yet available


  • 25 articles
  • Most common indication for surgery was a failure of a trial of nonoperative treatment with or without the concomitant use of serial imaging

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

4 × five =

Post comment